Heart disease fact sheet
Coronary heart disease (CHD), also known as ischaemic heart disease, or heart disease, is the most common form of cardiovascular disease. Its two major clinical forms are heart attack and angina. 
Heart disease is Australia’s leading single cause of death, with 19,077 Australian lives lost to heart disease in 2016. 
Even though heart disease deaths have decreased by 17% in the past decade, in 2016, 52 Australians died from heart disease each day. Heart disease was responsible for a death every 30 minutes. 
Heart disease was responsible for 13% of deaths in Australian men, and 11% of deaths in Australian women. Whilst heart disease was the underlying cause of 19,077 death in 2016, as an underlying and contributing cause, heart disease was a factor in nearly one in four deaths (22% or 34,810). 
CHD was the main cause for 146,000 hospitalisations in 2014/15. The number of hospital separations due to CHD has decreased by ten per cent from 2004/05 to 2014/15. 
In 2014-15, close to 3% of the population reported having a long-term heart disease, accounting for more than 620,000 Australians. 
CHD prevalence increases with age, with five per cent of Australians aged 55-64 reporting a long-term CHD condition, increasing to 16% for Australians aged 75 and over. 
Overall, people in lower socioeconomic groups, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and those living in remote areas have higher rates of hospitalisation and death resulting from CHD than other Australians. Prevalence of CHD was higher amongst the lowest socioeconomic group and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. 
Lifetime risks of heart disease
At age 40 years, the lifetime risk of coronary heart disease was one in two for men and one in three for women. This risk lessens with age, but remains high at older ages (70 years). 
Burden of disease
In 2012-13, $1.5 billion was spent providing healthcare services to admitted patients with heart disease. This was a small decrease from 2011-12, yet, on average, hospital admitted patient expenditure on heart disease patients has increased 1.9% per annum since 2004-05. 
The majority of patient admitted health expenditure is spent on males, accounting for over 70% of total patient expenditure in 2012-13. 
In a 2014 study focusing specifically on health expenditure on CVD, it found overall health expenditure on heart disease was $2,028 billion in 2008-09, with hospital admitted patient expenditure accounting for the majority (74.8%). Prescriptions were the next most expensive component (15.3%), followed by out of hospital medical services (9.9%). 
Awareness of heart disease as the leading cause of death
In 2017, approximately 2.5 million or 25% of Australians believe that heart related diseases are the leading cause of death for women. 
Awareness of heart related diseases as the leading cause of death was much higher for men, at 44%. 
Understanding heart disease
Australians are more likely to see lifestyle causes such as poor diet (51%), lack of exercise (41%), or being overweight (30%), as a risk factor for heart disease. This is rather than clinical risk factors such as high cholesterol (8%), or high blood pressure (6%).
Whilst high blood pressure is the largest attributable risk factor for heart disease, in 2017, more Australians nominated stress (8%), and alcohol consumption (12%), as key risk factors in place of high blood pressure. 
Told by a doctor
Almost three quarters (73%) of Australians, aged 30 to 65 years, reported having been told by their doctor they have at least one risk factor for heart disease. 
- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2011. Cardiovascular disease: Australian facts 2011. Cardiovascular disease series. Cat. no. CVD 53. Canberra: AIHW.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics 2017, Causes of Death 2016, ABS cat. no. 3303.0, September.
- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2015. Australian hospital statistics 2014–15. Health services series no. 54. Cat. no. HSE 145. Canberra: AIHW.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2016, National Health Survey: First results, 2014-15, ABS cat. no. 4364.0.55.001, March. Data customised using TableBuilder;
- DM Lloyd-Jones et al. Lifetime risk of developing coronary heart disease. The Lancet 1999 353: 89-92.
- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2017, Australian Health Expenditure – demographics and diseases: hospital admitted patient expenditure 2004-05 to 2012-13, Health Expenditure and Welfare series no. 59, cat. No. HWE 69, Canberra.
- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2014, Healthcare expenditure on cardiovascular diseases 2008-09, cat. no. CVD 65.
- Heart Foundation. HeartWatch Survey 2017.
- National Heart Foundation, 2017. HeartWatch Survey, customised data, April 2018.
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